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Wikileaks members targeted by CIA, fear for their safety

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CIA Logo
CIA Logo

WikiLeaks is currently under threat by the U.S. government and under surveillance operation in Iceland.

A site relatively insignificant, and with a small budget, that publishes Documents kept secret by governments, has captured the attention of the Pentagon, which claims that the site poses a possible threat to US troops.

The heads of the WikiLeaks even wrote that “if anything happens to us, you know why, it’s because of the video published by us on April 5, and you know whose responsibility it will be.”

The video they are referring to is the video showing the massacre of Iraqi civilians, already featured on Paradigms.

Editor pursued

According to information posted on Twitter, the editor of WikiLeaks Julian Assange, a Australian national, was harassed on a trip to Iceland. Another employee of the site, was detained for 22 hours and computers were seized.

“We have records of the flights of the Department of Defense/CIA. Don’t think you can get away with it. We are the WikiLeaks” claimed WikiLeaks in a warning tone.

WikiLeaks also urges their followers to contact them if they become aware of any operations against them.

Object to expose contributors to the Site

The Military Report 2008 suggests an attempt to expose those who contribute to the WikiLeaks, presenting Documents with “leaked information” as a way to undermine the site.

Sites like WikiLeaks “serve trust as a center of gravity by protecting the anonymity of whistleblowers.”

“Exposure of identification, termination of employment, prosecution and legal action against whistleblowers, could damage or destroy that center of gravity and deter others considering similar actions when using Wikileaks.org.”

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Introducing Wikileaks

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WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks

Wikileaks is a website that allows its users to publish Documents, photos, videos or government and/or corporate news, previously under anonymity, allowing them to bring to light matters whose interest to some was to keep them secret.

Wikileaks claims that the information posted on its site is not traceable, and as such, its contributors remain anonymous.

The site was launched in December 2006 a by mid November 2007 it already contained 1.2 million documents.

Wikileaks and its project were kept secret until January 2007, when Steven Aftergood, editor of Secrecy News came public to introduce the site. Among the organizers are dissidents from the Chinese government.

It was this same site that went public to release the shocking video showing the massacre of more than a dozen civilians in Iraq, at the hands of the US military, a video that has been around the world, launching a huge controversy.

This video was recently featured on Paradigmas, and can be seen in the articles “VIDEO: Wikileaks presents video of US military killing Iraqi civilians” and “Curiosities about the video brought to light by Wikileaks regarding the indiscriminate slaughter of civilians”

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Similarities between “1984” and reality

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1984 - Big Brother
1984 - Big Brother

George Orwell told us of a contingency in which, the state would gain dictatorial powers, in a very different way than we have known in despotic states in the past. A kind of “scientific dictatorship” in which social engineers programmed a kind of social and psychological control over the population.

In contrast to the dictatorships we have known to date in history, where despite the massive propaganda and personality cult of the dictator applied to the knowledge of the people, the real situation was still more or less visible, as the general population was perfectly aware of being under an authoritarian state, which often enforced its brute force to repress any contestation, the fictional despotic state created by Orwell in the novel 1984 forces its manipulations much more surreptitiously, creating emotional and psychological conditions in people that leave them receptive to and even anxious about the control and false sense of security provided by the state.

The virtual figure called “Big Brother“(Big Brother) that seems to be latent to all state action, in 1984, seems to want to convey to us that aforementioned sense of security. It makes itself presented as being a figure that inspires a paternal feeling, which almost all people long for when they feel insecure, harking back to a childhood nostalgia, even if utopian.

Also in relation to the Big Brother, he is the object of “personality cult”, already so often done in our history in relation to dictatorial figures, often trying to elevate them to the status of a kind of divine representation on earth.

In 1984, the world was supposedly divided into 3 great powers, and there was a vast territory disputed through armed conflict.

World divided into three powers: Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia.
World divided into three powers: Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia.

These three powers were Oceania, Eurasia and Lestasia, the first being where the novel takes place. There is perpetually an enemy in conflict with Oceania, and there is also an ally, with Eurasia and Lestasia reversing each other in those roles more than once.

The existence of a perpetual and virtual enemy, but presented as real, creates the necessary conditions for the state to expand, with the justification of creating security measures, becoming totalitarian.

We have witnessed the same kind of strategy nowadays, where an imaginary enemy has been created, it being terrorism, for example, often by staging attack situations, which are perpetrated by the very promoter of fear towards an enemy.

After the widespread belief in an enemy is created, although it is never truly tangible, but seems real, through a combination of techniques used in the media and information publications in general, even becoming a kind of irrefutable dogma, the state assumes the right to crush more and more human and citizenship rights for the sake of supposedly greater security.

The same ones who promote chaos and insecurity are the ones who subsequently propose to solve them.

We can see this in the wars carried out lately, where a country was overthrown on the pretext that there were weapons of mass destruction, which were never found, and where an imaginary enemy was sought, in caves and caves, and obviously, he never appeared. Nevertheless, a trail of destruction was left behind…

The panic about a general economic meltdown has also been strategically created, first by inflating the bubble of enthusiasm and speculation, where people in general feel confident to get into debt, and where the economy grows rampantly, without, however, having a solid base to support it. Then, when the time is right, certain “triggers” are primed that try to create panic, with a precipitous drop in the value of the economy virtually created.

This will generally allow the economic manipulators to take over another good chunk of the economy previously owned by the unwary asset holders who let themselves go on the speculation wave.

Another consequence already obtained through this type of scheme is the implementation of a banking system where there is a central bank that brings to itself the responsibility of creating a country’s currency, later demanding the interest for the use of that monetary system, thus leaving the state and the country in perpetual debt.

words like “terrorism” and “weapons of mass destruction” were and still are uttered in a repetitive and hypnotic manner.

Certain words lose their original definition and take on another distinct and often opposite one.

In the novel by George Orwell, there are two concepts (“newsword” and “doublethink“) by which the lexicon is reduced and altered. Where associations are promoted between various words so that they are connoted according to the purpose of the state. For example, the state motto of Oceania in 1984 was, “War is peace, Freedom is slavery, ignorance is strength.”

This is easily seen today, where to supposedly protect peace, war is waged, killing thousands or even millions of innocents, and to protect the so-called “free world” more and more freedoms of the people are restricted. It is a kind of “doublethink” applied to modern times.

Another interesting concept in the novel is that of “crimideia“, which is an ideological crime or illegal thoughts. This is another concept applied today. Bombarding the population with information that creates a common dogma, such as the existence of terrorists threatening democratic freedom, or the fact that the much-hyped global warming is caused by Carbon Dioxide, even though thousands of scientists disagree with that “fact.” The indoctrination is such that it is almost a crime to disagree with the official versions, on pain of being discriminated against and ridiculed, or worse.

These issues addressed here, in relation to the novel 1984 by George Orwell, make it an always topical work.

George Orwell, a critic of totalitarian systems such as Fascism or Communism, was a keen observer of the techniques used by these systems, having a vision of what might be attempted in the near future.

And here we are, not in 1984, but in 2010, and not with a system of “scientific dictatorship” fully implemented, as in the novel – not least because I think many aspects of the book would not be amenable to implementation – but in a situation where the siege on human freedoms is increasingly tightening, and where, remarkably, many of the techniques mentioned in the book are applied by skilled social engineers.

About Us

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About Us
About Us

Paradigmas was created by the initiative of a person, who through his studies and research began to verify various aspects in which the common belief did not correspond to what could be seen in reality, through independent observation.

In spite of the lack of information and even misinformation, something that possibly goes back to the remote past, and may even have a common origin, uniting all branches of knowledge in a general plane of misinformation, the creator of this site decided to produce it, initially in the form of a blog, then moving to site at the current address, in an attempt to bring to the reader’s attention the information that lies behind said Veil that veils the common enlightenment.

The site avoids bringing information as a form of dogma, so as not to become what it so often criticizes, exposing the matters for reader analysis and trying to maintain its impartiality.

After being in activity for some time, Paradigmas began to accept collaborators, to expand its activity, to be able to increase the rhythm of updates, and above all to open itself to all people who want to participate in it, democratizing itself and becoming a community site, according to what we consider to be the “awakening” in these days: a “global awakening”, by all and through all.

This process is still ongoing, if you wish to collaborate with Paradigmas, send an e-mail to: Paradigmamatrix@gmail.com, stating your intention.

The site has many projects, with those projects depending on the amount of help that comes in, and those projects can be accelerated if there is too much availability expressed.

Paradigmas also serves as a vehicle for study in relation to the subjects presented, embarking both the reader and the producers and contributors on a journey, an adventure, a discovery, in which the truth is revealed to us through our searching, our questioning.

Paradigmas was originally created targeting Portuguese-speaking countries, but may extend to the entire world.

We wish everyone a good trip!

Welcome

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Welcome
Welcome

In this, our inaugural article, we would like to welcome all those who decide to stop by.

Our intention on this site is to share some information, which we consider to be “unofficial”, since it seems to us that these days, all the so-called “official information” comes from news sources that are controlled by some interests, economic and/or private.

It thus seems necessary to us that the truth of the facts arrives reasonably intact – in the form of information -, to the recipient, being preserved from these interests, without thereby falling into the error of incurring in some exaggerations typical of some conspiracy theorists.

We will try, then, to separate the wheat from the chaff, while nevertheless giving due benefit of the doubt to some theories.

The choice of the title “Paradigmas” (Latin name for Paradigms) was a tricky one, not only because not many of the titles that would be more appropriate were already available, but also because of the difficulty in finding an epithet that would suit a topic that has the potential to become so vast and wide-ranging…

We are receptive, and would welcome the collaboration and participation of people who want to help develop this project, or to at least participate, actively or passively.

We will try to maintain a certain pace of updating on Paradigmas, notwithstanding our time constraints.

Electromagnetic Radiation and the Internal Organs

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Electromagnetic Radiation and the Internal Organs
Electromagnetic Radiation and the Internal Organs

The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive indicators of microwave influence. Animal experiments show increased activity and/or enlargement of the thyroid at 153 μW / cm2 (Demokidova, 1973) [1], at 100 μW / cm2 (Gabovich et al., 1979; [2] Navakatikian and Tomashevskaya, 1994 [3]), and at 1 μW / cm2 (Dumansky and Shandala, 1973 [4]). Several clinical studies confirm this (Drogichina, 1960 [5]; Sadchikova, 1960 [6]; Smirnova and Sadchikova, 1960 [7]; Baranski and Czerski, 1976 [8]). Smirnova and Sadchikova (1960) [7] states that physiological and even pathological changes in the activity of the thyroid can be detected long before any clinical manifestations of microwave injury. In this study 35 out of 50 persons working with microwave equipment showed abnormal thyroid activity. Drogichina (1960) [5] reports increased thyroid activity in almost all microwave workers examined.

The adrenals are also extremely sensitive to radiation. In animals irradiated for from 2 months up to 2 years, the adrenals are generally enlarged, have an altered ascorbic acid content, increase the secretion of adrenaline and glucocorticoids, and decrease the secretion of testosterone: Chou and Guy at 500 μW / cm2 (Lerner, 1984) [9], Navakatikian and Tomashevskaya (1994) [3] at 100 μW / cm2, Gabovich et al. (1979) [2] at 100 μW / cm2, Dumansky et al. (1982) [10] at 25 μW / cm2, Shutenko et al. (1981) [11] at 10 μW/cm2, Dumansky and Shandala (1973) [4] at 0.06 μW / cm2. With a shorter exposure, Giarola et al. (1971) [12] found a decrease in the mass of the adrenals in chickens at 14-24 μW / cm2. In clinical studies, Sadchikova (1973) [13] noted altered excretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine; Kolesnik et al. noted a decreased blood 17-CHS response to ACTH injection in all 35 workers tested (Baranski and Czerski, 1976 [8]); Hasik, and also Presman, noted increased activity of the adrenal cortex (Dodge, 1969). [14]

Ray and Behari (1990) found a significant decrease in the weight of the spleen, kidney, brain and ovary, and an increase in testicular weight in young rats exposed to 7.5 GHz, 600 μW /cm2, 3 hours a day for 60 days. [15]

Dumansky and Shandala (1973) [4] found increased RNA and DNA in the liver and spleen, and structural changes in the liver, spleen, testes, and brain of white rats and rabbits exposed to 3 cm and 12 cm waves at 0.06 to 101μW / cm2 for 8 to 12 hours a day for 180 days.

Giarola et al. (1971 [12], 1973 [16]) report an enlarged spleen and thymus in baby rats exposed for 35-53 days to 880 MHz, 14 μW / cm2.

Erin’ (1979) [17] reports a 23-83% increase in oxygen tension in renal tissues of adult white rats exposed to 2375 MHz, 50 μW / cm2 for 1-10 days.

Belokrinitsky (1982) [18] observed changes in the biochemistry and ultrastructure of liver, heart, kidney and brain tissue in rats exposed to 12.6 cm waves at intensifies of 5 μW / cm2 and higher for up to 2 months.

50 W / cm2 for 7 hours a day for 10 days caused urine output to fall 15%, and 500 μW / cm2 once for 7 hours had a larger effect (Belokrinitsky and Grin’, 1982 [22]). Elevation of urine pH, protein in the urine, and changes in electrolyte excretion persisted up to 25 days after exposure. Examination of kidney tissue revealed vasodilation, endothelial breakdown, perivascular and pericellular infiltrations, hemorrhage, swelling, partial de-epithelialization along the nephron, and other changes. Histochemical analysis showed decreased cellular glycogen, changes in RNA and DNA concentration, and the appearance of neutral fat droplets. Some of these changes were irreversible, even two months after one 7-hour exposure.

In large clinical studies, Orlova (1960) [19] noted decreased appetite, indigestion, epigastric pain, and enlargement of the liver in irradiated workers, while Gel’fon and Sadchikova (1960) [6] also noted liver enlargement and tenderness in certain patients, with a decreased antitoxic function of the liver in a few. Trinos (1982) [20] noted decreased appetite and indigestion, as well as chronic gastritis, cholecystitis, and decreased gastric acidity, especially in workers exposed to microwaves for more than ten years. Bachurin (1979) [21] also noted chronic gastritis and cholecystitis in workers occupationally exposed to 20-100 μW / cm2.

Bibliograpy

[1] Demokidova, N.K. (1973). On the biological effects of continuous and intermittent microwave radiation. JPRS 63321, p.113.

[2] Gabovich, P.D., Shutenko, O.I., Kozyarin, I.P. and Shvayko, I.I. (1979). Gigiyena i Sanitariya 10:12-14. JPRS 75515, pp. 30-35.

[3] Navakatikian, M.A. and Tomashevskaya, L.A. (1994). Phasic behavioral and endocrine effects of microwaves of nonthermal intensity. In Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, D.O. Carpenter and S. Ayrapetyan, eds., Academic Press, N.Y. 1994, pp. 333-342.

[4] Dumansky, J.D. and Shandala, M.G. (1973). The biologic action and hygienic significance of electromagnetic fields of super-high and ultrahigh frequencies in densely populated areas. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct. 1973, P. Czerski et al., eds., pp. 289-293.

[5] Drogichina, E.A. (1960). The clinic of chronic UHF influence on the human organism. In The Biological Action of Ultrahigh Frequencies, A.A. Letavet and Z.V. Gordon, eds., Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, 1960. JPRS 12471, pp. 22-24.

[6] Sadchikova, M.N. (1960). State of the nervous system under the influence of UHF. In The Biological Action of Ultrahigh Frequencies, A.A. Letavet and Z.V. Gordon, eds., Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, 1960, pp. 25-29.

[7] Smirnova, M.I. and Sadchikova, M.N. (1960). Determination of the functional activity of the thyroid gland by means of radioactive iodine in workers with UHF generators. In The Biological Action of Ultrahigh Frequencies, A.A. Letavet and Z.V. Gordon, eds., Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, 1960. JPRS 12471, pp. 47-49.

[8] Baranski, S. and Czerski, P. (1976). Biological Effects of Microwaves. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg.

[9] Lerner, E.J. (1984). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. IEEE Spectrum, May 1984, pp. 57-69.

[10] Dumansky, Y.D., Nikitina, N.G., Tomashevskaya, L.A., Kholyavko, F.R., Zhupakhin, K.S. and Yurmanov, V.A. (1982). Meteorological radar as source of SHF electromagnetic field energy and problems of environmental hygiene. Gigiyena i Sanitariya 2:7-11, 1982a. JPRS 84221, pp. 58-63.

[11] Shutenko, O.I., Kozyarin, I.P. and Shvayko, I.I. (1981). Effects of superhigh frequency electromagnetic fields on animals of different ages. Gigiyena i Sanitariya 10:35-38, 1981. JPRS 84221, pp. 85-90.

[12] Giarola, A.J., Krueger, W.F. and Woodall, H.W. (1971) The effect of a continuous UHF signal on animal growth. 1971 IEEE Inter-national Electromagnetic Compatibility Symposium Record, Phila., July 13-15, 1971, pp. 150-153.

[13] Sadchikova, M.N. (1973). Clinical manifestations of reactions to microwave irradiation in various occupational groups. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct., 1973, P. Czerski et al., eds., pp. 261-267.

[14] Dodge, C.H. (1969). Clinical and hygienic aspects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. In Symposium Proceedings. Biological Effects and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation, S. Cleary, ed., Richmond, Va., Sept. 1969, pp. 140-149.

[15] Ray, S. and Behari, J. (1990). Physiologic changes in rats after exposure to low levels of microwaves. Radiation Research 123:199-202.

[16] Giarola, A.J., Krueger, W.F., and Neff, R.D. (1973). The growth of animals under the influence of electric and magnetic fields. Health Physics in the Healing Arts, Seventh Midyear Topical Symposium, Health Physics Society, San Juan, P.R., Dec. 11-14, 1972, published March 1973, pp. 502-509.

[17] Erin’, A.N. (1979). Changes in oxygen tension, temperature and blood flow velocity in animal renal tissues during irradiation with low intensity electromagnetic waves in the ultrahigh frequency range. Vrachebnoye Delo 11:110-111, 1979. JPRS 75515.

[18] Belokrinitsky, V.S. (1982). Destructive and reparative processes in hippocampus with long-term exposure to nonionizing microwave radiation. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 93(3):89-92, 1982. JPRS 81865, pp. 15-20.

[19] Orlova, A.A. (1960). The clinic of changes of the internal organs under the influence of UHF. In The Biological Action of Ultrahigh Frequencies, A.A. Letavet and Z.V. Gordon, eds., Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, 1960. JPRS 12471, pp. 30-35.

[20] Trinos, M.S. (1982). Frequency of diseases of digestive organs in people working under conditions of combined effect of lead and SHF-range electromagnetic energy. Gigiyena i Sanitariya 9:93-94, 1982. JPRS 84221, pp. 23-26.

[21] Bachurin, I. V. (1979) Influence of small doses of electromagnetic waves on some human organs and systems. Vrachebnoye Delo 7:95-97, 1979. JPRS 75515, pp. 36-39.

[22] Belokrinitsky, V.S. and Grin’, A.N. (1982). Nature of morpho-functional renal changes in response to SHF fieldhypoxia combination. Vrachebnoye Delo 1:112-115, 1982. JPRS 84221, pp. 27-31.

Electromagnetic Radiation and the formation of Cataracts in the Eyes

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Electromagnetic Radiation and the formation of Cataracts in the Eyes
Electromagnetic Radiation and the formation of Cataracts in the Eyes

In the early 1970s the U.S. Army undertook an ophthalmological study of employees at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, a facility where electronic communication, detection, and guidance equipment are tested, developed and used. Workers exposed to microwaves had substantially more lens opacities than the controls (Frey, 1985). [1]

Huai (1981) found more lens vacuoles in irradiated workers than in controls. The tendency was evident even in those exposed to less than 200 μW / cm2, and became statistically significant at higher intensifies. A few cases of cataracts were found in the microwave workers. [2]

Bachurin (1979) noted a greater incidence of points of turbidity of the lens, narrowing of the arteries, spasm of vessels, and beginning sclerosis and angiopathy of the retina. These were young men working in TV and radio installations and other facilities where microwave intensities fluctuated between 20 and 60 μW / cm2, only occasionally reaching 100 μW / cm2. [3]

Sadchikova (1974) [4] and Sadchikova et al. (1980) [5] noted angiopathy or sclerosis of retinal blood vessels in workers exposed to several hundred μW / cm2 in radar production shops.

Drogichina (1960), 20 years previously, had noted both angiopathy of the retina and opacifications of the lens in microwave workers. [6]

In 1963, Zaret studied 736 radar workers and 559 controls, and found significantly more lens opacities in the radar workers. [7] Belova’s (1963) study of 370 microwave workers, [8] and Majewska’s (1968) study of 200 microwave workers [9] yielded similar results. Zydecki (1974) found an increased frequency of lens opacities in 3000 microwave workers who were never exposed to thermal intensities and concluded that microwaves prematurely age the lens. [10] Baranski and Czerski (1976), reviewing this study, stress that “the statistical treatment of data is extremely careful and does not leave room for doubts” (p. 167). [11]

Bibliography

[1] Frey, A.H. (1985). Data analysis reveals significant microwave-induced eye damage in humans. Journal of Microwave Power 1985, pp. 53-55.

[2] Huai, C. (1981). Assessment of health hazard and standard promulgation in China. Biological Effects and Dosimetry of Non-ionizing Radiation, NATO Conference, Erice, Italy, 1981, pp. 627-644.

[3] Bachurin, I. V. (1979). Influence of small doses of electromagnetic waves on some human organs and systems. Vrachebnoye Delo 7:95-97, 1979. JPRS 75515, pp. 36-39.

[4] Sadchikova, M.N. (1973). Clinical manifestations of reactions to microwave irradiation in various occupational groups. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct., 1973, P. Czerski et al., eds., pp. 261-267.

[5] Sadchikova, M.N., Kharlamova, S.F., Shatskaya, N.N. and Kuznetsova, N.V. (1980). Significance of blood lipid and electrolyte disturbances in the development of some reactions to microwaves. Gigiyena Truda i Professional’nyye Zabolevaniya 2:38-39, 1980. JPRS 77393, pp. 37-39.

[6] Drogichina, E.A. (1960). The clinic of chronic UHF influence on the human organism. In The Biological Action of Ultrahigh Frequencies, A.A. Letavet and Z.V. Gordon, eds., Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, 1960. JPRS 12471, pp. 22-24.

[7] Zaret, M., Cleary, S., Pasternack, B., Eisenbud, M., & Schmidt, H. (1963). Final report on contract AF30 (602) 2215—prepared for Rome Air Force Center, on “A Study of Lenticular Imperfections in the Eyes of a Sample of Microwave Workers and a Control Population,” submitted March 15, 1963. RADC-TDR63-125.

[8] S.F. Belova, Nauchn. Issledo. Inst. Gig. Tr. Profzabol., Tr. No. 1, p. 36 (1960)

[9] Majewska, K. (1968). Investigations on the effect of microwaves on the eye. Pol Med J 1968; 7 (4): 989-994.

[10] Zydecki, S. (1974) Assessment of lens translucency in juveniles, microwave workers and in age-matched groups. In: Czerski, P., Ostrowski, K., Shore, M. L., Silverman, Ch., Suess, M. J., & Waldeskog, B., ed. Biologic effects and health hazards of microwave radiation, Warsaw, Polish Medical Publishers, pp. 306-308.

[11] Baranski, S. and Czerski, P. (1976). Biological Effects of Microwaves. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg.

Electromagnetic Radiation and the Blood and Immune System

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Electromagnetic Radiation and the Blood and Immune System
Electromagnetic Radiation and the Blood and Immune System

Blood cells

The immune response is often biphasic: stimulated at low intensities and inhibited at higher intensities.

Chiang et al. (1989) in their epidemiological study found that white blood cell phagocytosis was stimulated by chronic exposure to the lowest intensities of radio waves and inhibited, sometimes severely, by higher intensities. The subjects were students in kindergarten, secondary school, and college who were exposed to radio transmitters or radar installations at school. Exposure levels ranged from 0-4 μW / cm2 to 120 μW / cm2. [1]

Goldoni (1990) examined air traffic controllers at a two year interval and found, in almost all cases, a significant decrease in white blood cells and platelets during their two years on the job. White blood cell count was below normal after two years in 36% of the workers. Red blood cell counts were lower on average than the control group and sometimes sub-normal. [2]

Huai (1981) also found an average decrease in white cells and platelets among microwave workers. [3]

Sadchikova (1974) found changes in the same directions in 1180 workers. [4]

Near the Skrunda radar, the 230 people examined had significant increases in their white cell counts and alterations in differential counts. Children were most affected. The irradiated Moscow embassy workers had an increased hematocrit, a strikingly higher white cell count and other changes that progressed during the time of their exposure (Goldsmith, 1995). [5]

Zalyubovskaya and Kiselev (1978) observed 72 microwave-exposed engineers and technicians over a period of 3 years. Their exposure level occasionally reached 1000 μW / cm2. [6]

During the 3 years, red blood cells and hemoglobin content of the blood declined, reticulocytes and platelets were reduced, white blood cells dropped to 30% below the control group, and lymphocytes increased 25%. The number of bacteria in the mouth was considerably higher and the bactericidal activity of the skin was less. These and other changes in immune function were then confirmed by experiments on mice. The animals were exposed to comparable intensities as the workers for 15 minutes a day for 20 days. The mice also developed 1/3 to 1/2 fewer antibodies in the blood, had lower resistance to infection, and a decrease in the size of their thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes.

Zalyubovskaya and Kiselev (1978) also noted an 18% decrease in the osmotic resistance of red blood cells and a 26% decrease in their acid resistance, in the exposed workers. This brittleness of red blood cells upon exposure to electromagnetic fields has been noted by others (Dodge, 1969; Sadchikova, 1973) [7][4] and recently confirmed by Ockerman (Södergren, 1996; Kauppi, 1996). [8][9]

Lysina wrote that basophilic granularity of erythrocytes should be taken as an early sign of microwave effect on the human organism (Dodge 1969, p. 145). [7]

Bachurin (1979) found that chronic exposure to 20-60 μW / cm2 increased the frequency of influenza, tonsillitis and other illnesses among workers. [10]

See Drogichina (1960), [11] Sokolov and Arievich (1960), [12] and Dodge (1969) [7] for a review of other clinical studies showing similar changes in the blood elements.

Shandala et al. (1979) found that 2375 MHz at 500 μW / cm2 caused a sudden significant impairment of immune function in rabbits. Animals exposed for 7 hours a day for 3 months did not recover normal immune function for 6 months afterwards. At 10 and 50 μW / cm2 immunity was stimulated. [13]

These results were further refined by a 30-day experiment with guinea pigs at 1, 5, 10, and 50 μW / cm2 (Shandala and Vinogradov, 1978). All these intensities increased complement in the blood and stimulated phagocytosis by neutrophils, but 1 μW/cm2 had the biggest effect, and 50 μW / cm2 the smallest effect. [14]

Two months later the animals that had been exposed to 10 and 50 μW / cm2 had an impaired response to hypoxia, and to injection of foreign protein.

These researchers also established that at 50 μW/ cm2 the radiation promotes autoimmunity by altering the antigenic structure of tissue and serum proteins. This was confirmed by Gabovich et al. (1979). [29]

Other similar work has been done by Shutenko et al. (1981), [15] Veyret et al. (1991), [16] Ray and Behari (1990), [17] Shandala and Vinogradov (1983), [18] Chou and Guy (Lerner 1984, p. 64), [19] and Marino (1988). [20] Dumanskij and Shandala (1973) [21] noted effects even at 0.06 μW / cm2. Elekes et al. (1994) [22] found an increase in antibody-producing cells in the spleen of mice at 30 μW / cm2 and noted the relevance of their study to mobile communications.

Blood sugar

Out of 27 exposed workers, 7 had flat blood sugar curves, 7 were prediabetic, and 4 had sugar in their urine (Bartonicek et al., summarized in Dodge, 1969). [7] Gel’fon and Sadchikova (1960), [23] Sadchikova (1973), [4] and Sikorski and Bielski (1996) [24] report similar findings. Klimkova-Deutschova (1973) [25] found a slight increase in the fasting blood sugar in 74% of workers.

These reports are consistent with animal experiments showing disturbed carbohydrate metabolism.

Dumanskij and Shandala (1973), [21] at 0.06-10 μW / cm2, found decreased mitochondrial activity of cytochrome oxidase, decreased glycogen in the liver, and accumulation of lactic acid. This pattern has been confirmed by later experiments (Dumanskiy, 1976, 1982a,b) [26][27][28] and by other researchers (Gabovich et al., 1979; [29] Belokrinitskiy, 1982a, 1982b; [30][31] Shutenko et al. 1981; [15] Dodge, 1969). [7]

Navakatikian and Tomashevskaya (1994), at 100 μW / cm2, report decreased serum insulin in rats. [32]

Cholesterol and triglycerides

Microwaves caused an elevation in blood cholesterol in 40.9% of exposed workers vs. 9.5% of controls, in agreement with reports by other researchers. Beta-lipoproteins were also elevated (Klimkova-Deutschova, 1973). [25]

Sadchikova et al. (1980) found elevated triglycerides in 63.6% of exposed workers and elevated betalipoproteins in 50.2%. A direct relationship was found between hyperbetalipoproteinemia and retinal angiopathy. Higher cholesterol and phospholipids were also found in the exposed workers compared to the controls. [33]

Serum proteins

Changes in serum proteins have been noted by many in clinical studies. It is found that microwaves cause an increase in total blood proteins and a decrease in the albumin-globulin ratio. See Pazderova et al. (1973), [34] Sadchikova (1973), [4] Klimkova-Deutschova (1973), [25] Dodge (1969), [7] Gel’fon and Sadchikova (1960). [23] Drogichina (1960) [11] writes that these are signs of the early influence of microwaves, before clinical signs of disease are evident.

Other biochemistry

Gabovich’s (1979) rats had elevated ascorbic acid in their urine and adrenals. [29]

Dumanskiy and Tomashevskaya’s (1982a,b) [27][28] rats had elevated blood serum urea and residual nitrogen from exposure to 8 mm or 3 cm waves at 60 μW / cm2. This reflected disturbed protein metabolism. Gabovich’s (1979) [29] findings of high ascorbic acid in the adrenals was also confirmed.

Bibliography

[1] Chiang, H., Yao, G.D., Fang, Q.S., Wang, K.Q., Lu, D.Z. and Zhou, Y.K. (1989). Health effects of environmental electromagnetic fields. Journal of Bioelectricity 8.(1):127-131.

[2] Goldoni, J. (1990). Hematological changes in peripheral blood of workers occupationally exposed to microwave radiation. Health Physics 58(2):205-207.

[3] Huai, C. (1981). Assessment of health hazard and standard promulgation in China. Biological Effects and Dosimetry of Non-ionizing Radiation, NATO Conference, Erice, Italy, pp. 627-644.

[4] Sadchikova, M.N. (1973) Clinical manifestations of reactions to microwave irradiation in various occupational groups. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct., 1973, P. Czerski et al., eds., pp. 261-267.

[5] Goldsmith, J.R. (1995). Epidemiologic evidence of radiofrequency radiation (microwave) effects on health in military, broad-casting, and occupational studies. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 1:47-57.

[6] Zalyubovskaya, N.P. and Kiselev, R.I. (1978). Effect of radio waves of a millimeter frequency range on the body of man and animals. Gigiyena i Sanitariya 8:35-39, 1978. JPRS 72956, pp. 9-15.

[7] Dodge, C.H. (1969) Clinical and hygienic aspects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. In Symposium Proceedings. Biological Effects and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation, S. Cleary, ed., Richmond, Va., Sept. 1969, pp. 140-149.

[8] Södergren, L. (1996). EMF Diary. Goteborg, Sweden.

[9] Kauppi, M. (1996). DNA injuries in electrically sensitive and CFS patients. Heavy Metal Bulletin 3(2):14.

[10] Bachurin, I. V. (1979). Influence of small doses of electromagnetic waves on some human organs and systems. Vrachebnoye Delo 7:95-97, 1979. JPRS 75515, pp. 36-39.

[11] Drogichina, E.A. (1960). The clinic of chronic UHF influence on the human organism. In The Biological Action of Ultrahigh Frequencies, A.A. Letavet and Z.V. Gordon, eds., Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, 1960. JPRS 12471, pp. 22-24.

[12] Sokolov, V.V. and Arievich, M.N. (1960). Changes in the blood under the influence of UHF on the organism. In The Biological Action of Ultrahigh Frequencies, A.A. Letavet and Z.V. Gordon, eds., Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, 1960, pp. 39-41.

[13] Shandala, M.G., Dumanskii, U.D., Rudnev, M.I., Ershova, L.K. and Los, I.P. (1979). Study of nonionizing microwave radiation effects upon the central nervous system and behavior reactions. Environmental Health Perspectives 30:115-121.

[14] Shandala, M.G. and Vinogradov, G. (1978). Immunological effects of microwave action. Gigiyena i Sanitariya 10:34-38, 1978. JPRS 72956, pp. 16-21.

[15] Shutenko, O.I., Kozyarin, I.P. and Shvayko, I.I. (1981). Effects of superhigh frequency electromagnetic fields on animals of different ages. Gigiyena i Sanitariya 10:35-38, 1981. JPRS 84221, pp. 85-90.

[16] Veyret, B., Bouthet, C., Deschaux, P., de Seze, R., Geffard, M., Joussot-Dubien, J., le Diraison, M., Moreau, J.-M. and Caristan, A. (1991). Antibody responses of mice exposed to low-power microwaves under combined pulse-and-amplitude modulation. Bioelectromagnetics 12:47-56.

[17] Ray, S. and Behari, J. (1990). Physiologic changes in rats after exposure to low levels of microwaves. Radiation Research 123:199-202.

[18] Shandala, M.G., Vinogradov, G., Rudnev, M.I. and Rudakova, S.F. (1983). Effects of chronic exposure to microwaves on certain indicators of cellular immunity. Radiobiologiya 23(4):544-546.

[19] Lerner, E.J. (1984). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. IEEE Spectrum, May 1984, pp. 57-69.

[20] Marino, A.A. (1988). Environmental electromagnetic energy and public health. In Modern Bioelectricity, A.A. Marino, ed., Dekker, N.Y.

[21] Dumanskij, J.D. and Shandala, M.G. (1973). The biologic action and hygienic significance of electromagnetic fields of super-high and ultrahigh frequencies in densely populated areas. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct. 1973, P. Czerski et al., eds., pp. 289-293.

[22] Elekes, E., Thuroczy, G. and Szabo, L. (1996). Effect on the immune system of mice exposed chronically to 50 Hz amplitude-modulated 2.45 GHz microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics 17: 246-248.

[23] Gel’fon, I.A. and Sadchikova, M.N. (1960). Protein fractions and histamine of the blood under the influence of UHF and HF. In The Biological Action of Ultrahigh Frequencies, A.A. Letavet and Z.V. Gordon, eds., Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, 1960. JPRS 12471, pp. 42-46.

[24] Sikorski, M. and Bielski, J. (1996). Disturbances of glucose tolerance in workers exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Medycyna Pracy 47(3):227-231.

[25] Klimkova-Deutschova, E. (1973). Neurologic findings in persons exposed to microwaves. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct., 1973, P. Czerski et al., eds., pp. 268-272.

[26] Dumanskiy, Y.D. and Rudichenko, V.F. (1976). Dependence of the functional activity of liver mitochondria on microwave radiation. Gigiyena i Sanitariya 4:16-19, 1976. JPRS 72606, pp. 27-32.Dumanskiy, Y.D. and Tomashevskaya, L.A. Investigation of the activity of some enzymatic systems in response to a super-high frequency electromagnetic field. Gigiyena i Sanitariya 8:23-27, 1978. JPRS 72606, pp. 1-7.

[27] Dumanskiy, Y.D., Nikitina, N.G., Tomashevskaya, L.A., Kholyavko, F.R., Zhupakhin, K.S. and Yurmanov, V.A. (1982a). Meteorological radar as source of SHF electromagnetic field energy and problems of environmental hygiene. Gigiyena i Sanitariya 2:7-11, 1982a. JPRS 84221, pp. 58-63.

[28] Dumanskiy, Y.D. and Tomashevskaya, L.A. (1982b). Hygienic evaluation of 8-mm wave electromagnetic fields. Gigiyena i Sanitariya 6:18-20, 1982b. JPRS 81865, pp. 6-9.

[29] Gabovich, P.D., Shutenko, O.I., Kozyarin, I.P. and Shvayko, I.I. (1979). Gigiyena i Sanitariya 10:12-14, 1979. JPRS 75515, pp. 30-35.

[30] Belokrinitskiy, V.S. (1982a). Destructive and reparative processes in hippocampus with long-term exposure to nonionizing microwave radiation. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 93(3):89-92, 1982. JPRS 81865, pp. 15-20.

[31] Belokrinitskiy, V.S. and Grin’, A.N. (1982b). Nature of morpho-functional renal changes in response to SHF fieldhypoxia combination. Vrachebnoye Delo 1:112-115, 1982. JPRS 84221, pp. 27-31.

[32] Navakatikian, M.A. and Tomashevskaya, L.A. (1994). Phasic behavioral and endocrine effects of microwaves of nonthermal intensity. In Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, D.O. Carpenter and S. Ayrapetyan, eds., Academic Press, N.Y. 1994, pp. 333-342.

[33] Sadchikova, M.N., Kharlamova, S.F., Shatskaya, N.N. and Kuznetsova, N.V. (1980). Significance of blood lipid and electrolyte disturbances in the development of some reactions to microwaves. Gigiyena Truda i Professional’nyye Zabolevaniya 2:38-39, 1980. JPRS 77393, pp. 37-39.

[34] Pazderova, J., Pickova, J. and Bryndova, V. (1973). Blood proteins in personnel of television and radio transmitting stations. In Biologic Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw, 15-18 Oct., 1973, P. Czerski, ed., pp. 281-288.

Electromagnetic Radiation: Effects on Growth and Aging

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Electromagnetic Radiation: Effects on Growth and Aging
Electromagnetic Radiation: Effects on Growth and Aging

Numerous researchers have found adverse effects of various frequencies of microwaves on animal growth. Giarola et al. (1971, 1973) [1][2] found 14-500 μW / cm’ depressed the growth of chickens and baby rats. Gabovich et al. (1979) [3] obtained a similar result with young rats at 100 μW / cm2, as did Ray and Behari (1990) [4] at 600 μW / cm2. Gabovich (1979) [3] reported reduced weight increase in pregnant rats at 100 μW / cm2. Bigu Del Blanco et al. (1973) [5] doubled the mortality of chickens at less than 400 μW / cm2. And Garaj-Vrhovac et al. (1991) [6] found only 60% of the normal number of Chinese hamster cells after exposing the culture to 500 μW / cm2 for 60 minutes.

The evidence on plants is startling:

Trees growing in pine forests exposed to the Skrunda radar have had decreased thickness of growth rings beginning after 1970, which coincided with the start of operation of the radar. Nearby unexposed trees have not been similarly affected (Balodis et al., 1996). [7]

Study of pine needles and cones at Skrunda has revealed accelerated resin production and premature aging of pine trees in the exposed area, even where the intensity is only 24 pW / cm2 (0.000024 μW / cm2), as compared with trees in nearby unexposed areas. Also, the germination of low exposure seeds is enhanced, while the germination of higher exposure seeds is severely impaired. The authors have noted a similarity to the effects of ultraviolet radiation (Selga and Selga, 1996). [8]

Duckweed plants grown near the Skrunda radar have a shorter life span and impaired reproduction compared to plants grown distant from the radar. Morphological and developmental abnormalities are also found in the exposed plants (Magone, 1996). [9]

Marha (1969) writes, “It is known from reports in the literature that the velocity of cell division with Vicius fabus [a bean] is accelerated at field intensities of 10-4 V/ m at frequencies of approximately 30 MHz and the velocity decreases at values above 0.1 V / m” (p. 189). 10-4 V /m corresponds to a power density of 0.0026 pW / cm2 (0.0000000026 μW / cm2). This is less than what we receive on earth from satellites. These experimental results, and those from Skrunda, and those of Kondra with chickens, above, prove that satellite signals are biologically active. [10]

Bibliography

[1] Giarola, A.J., Krueger, W.F. and Woodall, H.W. (1971). The effect of a continuous UHF signal on animal growth. 1971 IEEE Inter-national Electromagnetic Compatibility Symposium Record, Phila., July 13-15, 1971, pp. 150-153.

[2] Giarola, A.J., Krueger, W.F., and Neff, R.D. (1973). The growth of animals under the influence of electric and magnetic fields. Health Physics in the Healing Arts, Seventh Midyear Topical Symposium, Health Physics Society, San Juan, P.R., Dec. 11-14, 1972, published March 1973, pp. 502-509.

[3] Gabovich, P.D., Shutenko, O.I., Kozyarin, I.P. and Shvayko, I.I. (1979). Gigiyena i Sanitariya 10:12-14, 1979. JPRS 75515, pp. 30-35.

[4] Ray, S. and Behari, J. (1990). Physiologic changes in rats after exposure to low levels of microwaves. Radiation Research 123:199-202.

[5] Bigu Del Blanco, J., Romero-Sierra, C. and Tanner, J.A. (1973). Radiofrequency fields: a new biological factor. 1973 IEEE International Electromagnetic Compatibility Symposium Record, New York, June 20-22, 1973, pp. 54-59.

[6] Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Horvat, D., and Koren, Z. (1991). The relationship between colony-forming ability, chromosome aberrations and incidence of micronuclei in V79 Chinese hamster cells exposed to microwave radiation. Mutation Research 263:143-149.

[7] Balodis, V., Brumelis, G., Kalviskis, K., Nikodemus, O., Tjarve, D., and Znotina, V. (1996). Does the Skrunda Radio Location Station diminish the radial growth of pine trees? The Science of the Total Environment 180:57-64.

[8] Selga, T. and Selga, M. (1996). Response of Pinus sylvestris L. needles to electromagnetic fields. Cytological and ultrastructural aspects. The Science of the Total Environment 180:65-73.

[9] Magone, I. (1996). The effect of electromagnetic radiation from the Skrunda Radio Location Station on Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden cultures. The Science of the Total Environment 180: 75-80.

[10] Marha, K. (1969). Maximum admissible values of HF and UHF electromagnetic radiation at work places in Czechoslovakia. In Symposium Proceedings. Biological Effects and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation, Richmond, Va., Sept. 1969, S. Cleary, ed., pp. 188-191.

Link between Microwaves and Genetic Diseases

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Link between Microwaves and Genetic Diseases
Link between Microwaves and Genetic Diseases

Garaj-Vrhovac et al. (1987) found chromosome breaks, fragments and deletions in up to 13% of cultured lymphocytes of 50 workers operating microwave equipment. Unexposed workers did not have these types of lesions. These researchers write that microwave radiation is “a known mutagenic agent . . . Its damaging effects on the living organism are well known” (Garaj-Vrhovac et al., 1991). [1][12]

At Skrunda, Balode et al. (1996) have found chromosome damage in cows grazing in the radiation zone. Micronuclei were counted in the red blood cells. Six times as many micro-nuclei were found compared to nearby cows unexposed to the radar. [2]

Ockerman has found chromosome damage in 16 electrically sensitive people in a study not yet published (Kauppi, 1996). [3]

Goldsmith (1995) reports that significant chromosomal abnormalities were found in the blood of half the U.S. Embassy workers in Moscow in 1966. The irradiation of the embassy caused concern at official levels, and the health of these workers was monitored as part of a classified study called Project Pandora. The chromosomal and other findings, including evidence of increased rates of cancer, have since been declassified under the Freedom of Information Act. [4]

Manikowska-Czerska, Czerski and Leach, at the U.S. Public Health Service in Rockville, Maryland, irradiated mice for 30 minutes a day for 2 weeks at an intensity of about 250 μW / cm2 at various frequencies (Lerner, 1984, reporting on a meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society). Chromosomal defects were induced in 7.2% of the sperm precursor cells, compared with .05-.07% in unexposed mice. [5]

This is not a dose-response phenomenon. Chromosomal damage occurred at the same rate, or even less often, at much higher intensities. Mays Swicord, at the same meeting, presented evidence that DNA could absorb 400 times as much energy from microwaves as water due to molecular resonance (see Sagripanti and Swicord, 1986). [6]

Kapustin et al. found chromosome damage in the bone marrow of rats exposed to 12-cm waves at an intensity of 50 μW / cm2 for 7 hours a day for 10 days (McRee, 1980). [7]

Belyaev et al. (1992) found that 41 and 51 GHz waves at an intensity of 1 μW / cm2 suppressed repair of X-ray damaged chromosomes in E. Coli. One 5-minute exposure to the microwaves prevented repair for the hour and a half of the incubation experiment. At 0.1 μW / cm2 the effect was less pronounced. [8]

Lai and Singh (1995) found chromosome breaks in rat brain cells at higher intensities than I am reporting on elsewhere (1-2 mW / cm2), but these experiments are significant in finding chromosome breaks immediately upon exposure. [13]

Sarkar (1994) also found significant chromosome damage in the testes and brain of mice at these intensities. [9]

Akoyev (1980) reported that the dose necessary to damage chromosomes was significantly smaller in live animals than in cell cultures. [10]

A review of earlier research can be found in Healer (1969). [11]

Bibliography

[1] Garaj-Vrhovac, V. et al. (1987). Somatic mutations in persons occupationally exposed to microwave radiation. Mutation Research 181:321.

[2] Balode, Z. (1996). Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation by the micronucleus test in Bovine peripheral erythrocytes. The Science of the Total Environment 180: 81-85.

[3] Kauppi, M. (1996). DNA injuries in electrically sensitive and CFS patients. Heavy Metal Bulletin 3(2):14.

[4] Goldsmith, J.R. (1995). Epidemiologic evidence of radiofrequency radiation (microwave) effects on health in military, broad-casting, and occupational studies. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 1:47-57.

[5] Lerner, E.J. (1984). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. IEEE Spectrum, May 1984, pp. 57-69.

[6] Sagripanti, J. and Swicord, M.L. (1986). DNA structural changes caused by microwave radiation. Int. J. of Rad. Biol. 50(1): 47-50.

[7] McRee, D.I. Soviet and Eastern European research on biological effects of microwave radiation. Proc. IEEE 68(1):84-91, 1980.

[8] Belyaev, I.Y., Alipov, Y.D., Shcheglov, V.S. and Lystsov, V.N. (1992). Resonance effect of microwaves on the genome conformational state of E. coli cells. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Section C, A Journal of Biosciences 47: 621-7.

[9] Sarkar, S., Ali, S., Behari, J. (1994). Effect of low power microwave on the mouse genome: a direct DNA analysis. Mutation Research 320:141-147.

[10] Akoyev, I.G. (1980). Current problems of radiobiology of electromagnetic radiation of radio-frequency range. Radiobiologiya 20(1):3-8, 1980. JPRS 79780, pp. 37-43.

[11] Healer, J. (1969). Review of studies of people occupationally exposed to radiofrequency radiations. InSymposium Proceedings. Biological Effects and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation. Richmond, Va., S. Cleary, ed., Sept. 1969, pp. 90-97.

[12] Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Horvat, D., and Koren, Z. (1991). The relationship between colony-forming ability, chromosome aberrations and incidence of micronuclei in V79 Chinese hamster cells exposed to microwave radiation. Mutation Research 263:143-149.

[13] Lai, H. and Singh, N.P. (1995). Acute low-intensity microwave expo-sure increases DNA single-strand breaks in rat brain cells. Bioelectromagnetics 16:207-210.

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