Microwave Exposure Studies: Cancer Related Evidences

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Microwave Exposure Studies: Cancer Related Evidences
Microwave Exposure Studies: Cancer Related Evidences

Good research on microwave cancer is sparser but fairly conclusive.

Guy and Kung exposed 200 rats to pulsed 2450 MHz waves at 480 μW / cm2 for 23 hours a day. They developed two and a half times as many cancers over their lifetime under normal life conditions as 200 unexposed controls (discussed in Frey (1994) and Szmigielski (1989a,b)). [1][2]

Balcer-Kubiczek (1994) proved microwaves are carcinogenic by using the C3H / 1OT1 / 2 mouse embryo cell line. This cell line is frequently used in cancer research to identify chemical carcinogens. 2450 MHz pulsed waves were used. When irradiation was followed by treatment with a known tumor promoter, TPA, it caused cancers in a dose-response relationship, similar to that seen with ionizing radiation. TPA by itself did not cause any tumors. This author concludes that “2.45 GHz microwaves seem to act as an initiator or carcinogen, rather than as a promoter of malignant transformation” (p. 150). 0.1 W / kg was effective. [3]

Several epidemiological surveys have been combined with field measurements of radiation levels. In Honolulu, which has the highest radiation levels of any U.S. urban area (Microwave News, Jan./Feb. 1985), the the State Health Department compared the cancer incidence of nine census tracts that include broadcast towers with that of two demographically similar tracts that do not. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency measured radiofrequency intensities, which were below 100 μW / cm2 almost everywhere in the exposed tracts. Cancer, and especially leukemia, was significantly more common in the tracts with towers (Goldsmith (1995), (1996), Marino (1988)). [4][5][6]

Hocking and Gordon (1995) report on a similar study in Sydney, Australia. They compared cancer incidence and mortality from 19721990 in six northern Sydney municipalities, three of which immediately surround transmitters for 4 TV stations and an FM radio station, and three of which are more distant. Exposed children had double the rate of leukemia compared to children in the unexposed communities. Radio wave intensity was 0.2-8.0 μW / cm2 near the towers, and 0.02 μW / cm2 in the distant communities. [7]

Dr. William Morton of the University of Oregon’s Health Sciences Center in Portland has found similar trends in his study of cancer and broadcast radiation in Portland, where levels in excess of 100 μW / cm2 occur in some public areas and in private homes (Marino (1988), Microwave News, Nov./Dec. 1995). [6][11]

Szmigielski (1996) did a controlled retrospective study of cancer incidence in all Polish military career personnel from 1971 to 1985. This included on average 128,000 persons per year. Personnel exposed to microwaves (generally less than 200 .μW / cm2) had more than double the cancer rate of everybody else. Leukemia was more than eight times as common. [8]

For reviews of other research, see Frey (1994), Szmigielski (1988, 1989a,b), Savitz (1987), and Goldsmith (1995, 1996). [1][9][2][10][4][5]

Bibliography:

[1] Frey, A.H. (1994). An integration of the data on mechanisms with particular reference to cancer. In On the Nature of Electromagnetic Field Interactions with Biological Systems, A.H. Frey, ed., R.G. Landes Co., Austin, pp. 9-28.

[2] Szmigielski, S. and Gil, J. (1989). Electromagnetic fields and neoplasms. In Electromagnetic Biointeraction, G. Franceschetti et al., eds., Plenum, N.Y., pp. 81-98.

[3] Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K. (1994). Experimental studies of electromagnetic field-induced carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells. In On the Nature of Electromagnetic Field Interactions with Biological Systems, A. H. Frey, pp. 143-155.

[4] Goldsmith, J.R. (1995). Epidemiologic evidence of radiofrequency radiation (microwave) effects on health in military, broad-casting, and occupational studies. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 1:47-57.

[5] Goldsmith, J.R. (1996). Epidemiological studies of radio-frequency radiation: current status and areas of concern. The Science of the Total Environment 180:3-8.

[6] Marino, A.A. (1988). Environmental electromagnetic energy and public health. In Modern Bioelectricity, A.A. Marino, ed., Dekker, N.Y..

[7] Hocking, B. and Gordon, I. (1995). Childhood leukemia risk increase associated with TV towers in North Sydney for exposures well below the present public safety standard. D.O.E. poster presentation, Palm Springs Workshop.

[8] Szmigielski, S. (1996). Cancer morbidity in subjects occupationally exposed to high frequency (radiofrequency and microwave) electromagnetic radiation. The Science of the Total Environment 180:9-17.

[9] Szmigielski, S., Bielec, M., Lipski, S., and Sokolska, G (1988). Immunologic and cancer-related aspects of exposure tc low-level microwave and radiofrequency fields. In Modern Bioelectricity, A.A. Marino, ed., Dekker, N.Y., pp. 861-925.

[10] Savitz, D.A. and Calle, E.E. (1987). Leukemia and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields: review of epidemiologic surveys. Journal of Occupational Medicine 29(1): 47-51.

[11] Microwave News, Nov./Dec. 1995, pp. 1+, report on cancer studies.

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