Garaj-Vrhovac et al. (1987) found chromosome breaks, fragments and deletions in up to 13% of cultured lymphocytes of 50 workers operating microwave equipment. Unexposed workers did not have these types of lesions. These researchers write that microwave radiation is “a known mutagenic agent . . . Its damaging effects on the living organism are well known” (Garaj-Vrhovac et al., 1991). 
At Skrunda, Balode et al. (1996) have found chromosome damage in cows grazing in the radiation zone. Micronuclei were counted in the red blood cells. Six times as many micro-nuclei were found compared to nearby cows unexposed to the radar. 
Ockerman has found chromosome damage in 16 electrically sensitive people in a study not yet published (Kauppi, 1996). 
Goldsmith (1995) reports that significant chromosomal abnormalities were found in the blood of half the U.S. Embassy workers in Moscow in 1966. The irradiation of the embassy caused concern at official levels, and the health of these workers was monitored as part of a classified study called Project Pandora. The chromosomal and other findings, including evidence of increased rates of cancer, have since been declassified under the Freedom of Information Act. 
Manikowska-Czerska, Czerski and Leach, at the U.S. Public Health Service in Rockville, Maryland, irradiated mice for 30 minutes a day for 2 weeks at an intensity of about 250 μW / cm2 at various frequencies (Lerner, 1984, reporting on a meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society). Chromosomal defects were induced in 7.2% of the sperm precursor cells, compared with .05-.07% in unexposed mice. 
This is not a dose-response phenomenon. Chromosomal damage occurred at the same rate, or even less often, at much higher intensities. Mays Swicord, at the same meeting, presented evidence that DNA could absorb 400 times as much energy from microwaves as water due to molecular resonance (see Sagripanti and Swicord, 1986). 
Kapustin et al. found chromosome damage in the bone marrow of rats exposed to 12-cm waves at an intensity of 50 μW / cm2 for 7 hours a day for 10 days (McRee, 1980). 
Belyaev et al. (1992) found that 41 and 51 GHz waves at an intensity of 1 μW / cm2 suppressed repair of X-ray damaged chromosomes in E. Coli. One 5-minute exposure to the microwaves prevented repair for the hour and a half of the incubation experiment. At 0.1 μW / cm2 the effect was less pronounced. 
Lai and Singh (1995) found chromosome breaks in rat brain cells at higher intensities than I am reporting on elsewhere (1-2 mW / cm2), but these experiments are significant in finding chromosome breaks immediately upon exposure. 
Sarkar (1994) also found significant chromosome damage in the testes and brain of mice at these intensities. 
Akoyev (1980) reported that the dose necessary to damage chromosomes was significantly smaller in live animals than in cell cultures. 
A review of earlier research can be found in Healer (1969). 
 Garaj-Vrhovac, V. et al. (1987). Somatic mutations in persons occupationally exposed to microwave radiation. Mutation Research 181:321.
 Kauppi, M. (1996). DNA injuries in electrically sensitive and CFS patients. Heavy Metal Bulletin 3(2):14.
 Goldsmith, J.R. (1995). Epidemiologic evidence of radiofrequency radiation (microwave) effects on health in military, broad-casting, and occupational studies. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 1:47-57.
 Lerner, E.J. (1984). Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. IEEE Spectrum, May 1984, pp. 57-69.
 Belyaev, I.Y., Alipov, Y.D., Shcheglov, V.S. and Lystsov, V.N. (1992). Resonance effect of microwaves on the genome conformational state of E. coli cells. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Section C, A Journal of Biosciences 47: 621-7.
 Akoyev, I.G. (1980). Current problems of radiobiology of electromagnetic radiation of radio-frequency range. Radiobiologiya 20(1):3-8, 1980. JPRS 79780, pp. 37-43.
 Healer, J. (1969). Review of studies of people occupationally exposed to radiofrequency radiations. InSymposium Proceedings. Biological Effects and Health Implications of Microwave Radiation. Richmond, Va., S. Cleary, ed., Sept. 1969, pp. 90-97.
 Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Horvat, D., and Koren, Z. (1991). The relationship between colony-forming ability, chromosome aberrations and incidence of micronuclei in V79 Chinese hamster cells exposed to microwave radiation. Mutation Research 263:143-149.